Zinc deficiencyZinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the high zinc symptoms of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for high zinc symptoms status. Zinc deficiency in humans is caused by reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased body system utilization. The most common cause is reduced dietary intake. The highest concentration of dietary zinc is found in oystersmeat, beansand nuts.
Zinc deficiency - Wikipedia
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status.
Zinc deficiency in humans is caused by reduced dietary intake, inadequate absorption, increased loss, or increased body system utilization. The most common cause is reduced dietary intake.
The highest concentration of dietary zinc is found in oysters , meat, beans , and nuts. Increasing the amount of zinc in the soil and thus in crops and animals is an effective preventive measure.
Zinc deficiency may affect up to 2 billion people worldwide. Novel zinc biomarkers, such as the erythrocyte LA: DGLA ratio, have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical trials and are being developed to more accurately detect dietary zinc deficiency.
Zinc deficiency may manifest as acne ,  eczema ,  xerosis dry, scaling skin ,  seborrheic dermatitis ,  or alopecia thin and sparse hair. Zinc deficiency can manifest as non-specific oral ulceration , stomatitis , or white tongue coating.
Severe zinc deficiency may disturb the sense of smell  and taste. Impaired immune function in people with zinc deficiency can lead to the development of respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other infections, e. Zinc deficiency contributes to an increased incidence and severity of diarrhea. Zinc deficiency may lead to loss of appetite or anorexia nervosa.
At least 15 clinical trials have shown that zinc improved weight gain in anorexia. A trial showed that zinc doubled the rate of body mass increase in the treatment of anorexia nervosa. Deficiency of other nutrients such as tyrosine, tryptophan and thiamine could contribute to this phenomenon of "malnutrition-induced malnutrition".
Cognitive functions, such as learning and hedonic tone , are impaired with zinc deficiency. Low plasma zinc levels have been alleged to be associated with many psychological disorders. Schizophrenics have been shown to have decreased brain zinc levels  and supplementation as an adjuvant was shown to improve symptoms in one study. People with Migraines have been shown to have low levels of Zinc  and supplementation improved symptoms in a prospective study.
Zinc deficiency in children can cause delayed growth  and has been claimed to be the cause of stunted growth in one third of the world's population.
Zinc deficiency during pregnancy can negatively affect both the mother and fetus. Animal studies indicate that maternal zinc deficiency can upset both the sequencing and efficiency of the birth process.
An increased incidence of difficult and prolonged labor, hemorrhage, uterine dystocia and placental abruption has been documented in zinc deficient animals. However, a review on zinc supplementation trials during pregnancy did not report a significant effect of zinc supplementation on neonatal survival. Zinc deficiency can interfere with many metabolic processes when it occurs during infancy and childhood, a time of rapid growth and development when nutritional needs are high.
Zinc is required to produce testosterone. Thus, zinc deficiency can lead to reduced circulating testosterone, hypogonadism , and delayed puberty. Zinc deficiency can be caused by a diet high in phytate-containing whole grains, foods grown in zinc deficient soil, or processed foods containing little or no zinc. Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an inherited deficiency of the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 resulting in inadequate zinc absorption.
Numerous small bowel diseases which cause destruction or malfunction of the gut mucosa enterocytes and generalized malabsorption are associated with zinc deficiency. Exercising, high alcohol intake, and diarrhea all increase loss of zinc from the body. Exercising, childhood growth, and pregnancy  all increase utilization. The mechanism of zinc deficiency in some diseases has not been well defined; it may be multifactorial. Wilson's disease , sickle cell disease, chronic kidney disease, chronic liver disease have all been associated with zinc deficiency.
Although marginal zinc deficiency is often found in depression, low zinc levels could either be a cause or a consequence of mental disorders and their symptoms. As biosystems are unable to store zinc, regular intake is necessary. Excessively low zinc intake can lead to zinc deficiency, which can negatively impact an individual's health. It is important in maintaining basic cellular functions such as DNA replication , RNA transcription , cell division and cell activations.
However, having too much or too little zinc can cause these functions to be compromised. In its catalytic role, zinc is a critical component of the catalytic site of hundreds of kinds of different metalloenzymes in each human being.
In its regulatory role, zinc is involved in the regulation of nucleoproteins and the activity of various inflammatory cells. For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has multiple functions, such as intracellular zinc compartmentalization  and antioxidant function. Pra1 pH regulated antigen 1 is a candida albicans protein that scavenges host zinc.
Zinc deficiency can be classified as acute, as may occur during prolonged inappropriate zinc-free total parenteral nutrition ; or chronic, as may occur in dietary deficiency or inadequate absorption. Severe zinc deficiency is rare, and is mainly seen in persons with acrodermatitis enteropathica, a severe defect in zinc absorption due to a congenital deficiency in the zinc carrier protein ZIP4 in the enterocyte. Providing micronutrients, including zinc, to humans is one of the four solutions to major global problems identified in the Copenhagen Consensus from an international panel of economists.
Significant historical events related to zinc deficiency began in when zinc was first discovered to be essential to the growth of an organism Aspergillus Niger.
Zinc was found to be essential to the growth of rats in In zinc levels in a series of autopsies found it to be present in all tissues examined. In a study showed most zinc excretion was via the feces. In a normal serum zinc level was first defined, and found to be In cirrhotic patients were found to have low serum zinc levels.
In zinc was determined to be essential to human growth, three enzymes requiring zinc as a cofactor were described, and a report was published of a year-old Iranian man with stunted growth, infantile genitalia, and anemia which were all reversed by zinc supplementation.
In the first case of acrodermatitis enteropathica due to severe zinc deficiency was described. In the National Academy of Sciences declared zinc to be an essential element for humans and established a recommended daily allowance.
In the Food and Drug Administration required zinc to be in total parenteral nutrition fluids. In the s there was increasing attention on the role of zinc deficiency in childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. By over zinc containing enzymes have been identified, as well as over zinc containing transcription factors.
Soil zinc is an essential micronutrient for crops. Areas with zinc deficient soils are often regions with widespread zinc deficiency in humans. A basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc in soils, understanding of the uptake and transport of zinc in crops and characterizing the response of crops to zinc deficiency are essential steps in achieving sustainable solutions to the problem of zinc deficiency in crops and humans.
Soil and foliar application of zinc fertilizer can effectively increase grain zinc and reduce the phytate: Zinc fertilization not only increases zinc content in zinc deficient crops, it also increases crop yields. Even with zinc-efficient varieties, zinc fertilizers are needed when the available zinc in the topsoil becomes depleted.
Plant breeding can improve zinc uptake capacity of plants under soil conditions with low chemical availability of zinc. Breeding can also improve zinc translocation which elevates zinc content in edible crop parts as opposed to the rest of the plant. Central Anatolia, in Turkey, was a region with zinc-deficient soils and widespread zinc deficiency in humans. In , a research project found that yields could be increased by 6 to 8-fold and child nutrition dramatically increased through zinc fertilization.
While the product was initially made available at the same cost, the results were so convincing that Turkish farmers significantly increased the use of the zinc-fortified fertilizer 1 percent of zinc within a few years, despite the repricing of the products to reflect the added value of the content. Nearly ten years after the identification of the zinc deficiency problem, the total amount of zinc-containing compound fertilizers produced and applied in Turkey reached a record level of , tonnes per annum.
Zinc deficiency in children has been dramatically reduced. Zinc deficiency can occur in soil, plants , and animals. There is some evidence that zinc may have an effect on cancer and further study is recommended. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Zinc deficiency Zinc Specialty Endocrinology Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. Zinc deficiency plant disorder.
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