A&P 2_CH 16 (Endocrine System)Hyposecretion of the pancreas. Hyposecretion of growth hormone. Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex. Hypersecretion of growth hormone. Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants.
Endocrine System Flashcards | Quizlet
Hyposecretion of the pancreas. Hyposecretion of growth hormone. Hyposecretion of the adrenal cortex. Hypersecretion of growth hormone.
Hyposecretion of the thyroid in infants. Hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex. The gland that controls the fight-or-flight reaction. Produces hormones that regulate glucose levels in the body. Produces the body's major metabolic hormones. Produces a hormone that controls blood levels of calcium and potassium by their removal from bone tissue. The size and shape of a pea; produces hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands. In humans, melatonin may inhibit sexual maturation. Follicle cells of the thyroid gland produce thyroglobulin, while follicle cells of the parathyroid produce calcitonin.
The thyroid gland is embedded in the parathyroid tissue. The prime metabolic effect of cortisol is gluconeogenesis. The beta cells are the pancreatic islet cells that produce insulin. Peptide hormones enter the target cells and elicit a response by mediating neurotransmitter effects. Calcitonin is a peptide hormone that has destructive effects on the skeletal system. Aldosterone is the most potent mineralocorticoid produced in the adrenals but the least abundant.
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a hormone that controls blood pressure in part by increasing the urinary excretion of sodium. While glucagon is a small polypeptide, it is nevertheless very potent in its regulatory effects. The thyroid gland is a large gland that controls metabolic functions throughout the life of an individual. The antagonistic hormones that regulate the blood calcium level are calcitonin-parathormone.
Many hormones synthesized in the gastrointestinal tract are chemically identical to brain neurotransmitters. All of the following hormones are secreted by the adenohypophysis: Iodine is an essential element required for the synthesis of thyroxine. The endocrine gland that is probably malfunctioning if a person has a high metabolic rate is the parathyroid.
Growth hormone always exerts its influence by targeting other endocrine glands to produce hormones. Diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus are both caused by a genetic mutation involving the synthesis of insulin.
The stimulus for calcitonin release is usually excessive amounts of growth hormone synthesis. Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that usually enhance the immune responses when an individual is suffering from severe stress.
Direct gene activation involves a second-messenger system. All peptide hormone synthesis requires gene activation that produces mRNA. The hormone that raises blood sugar levels is insulin. The endocrine structure that develops from the nervous system is the anterior pituitary. Both "turn on" factors hormonal, humoral, and neural stimuli and "turn off" factors feedback inhibition and others may be modulated by the activity of the nervous system.
ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroid hormones. LH is also referred to as a gonadotropin. The only known effect of prolactin in humans is to produce impotence in males. Oxytocin is a strong stimulant of uterine contractions. Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus? Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland.
Insulin, a small amino-acid protein, is synthesized by the beta cells of the pancreas. Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation.
In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers. One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients.
Which of the following describes this mechanism? The parathyroid glands maintain adequate levels of blood calcium. Which organ is responsible for synthesizing ANP? Which of the following is not a steroid-based hormone? Which of the following does not act as a second messenger in second-messenger systems of hormone action?
Select the correct statement about the structure or function of chemical messengers. An amino acid derivative can be a hormone. Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroids on cells? Which of the following is true about calcium homeostasis? Parathyroid hormone is the single most important regulator of calcium levels in the blood.
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus? Which organ does not have hormone production? In circumstances where the body requires prolonged or increased levels of a hormone, the DNA of target cells will specify the synthesis of more receptors on the surface of the cells of the target organ.
A man has been told that he is not synthesizing enough follicle-stimulating hormone FSH , and for this reason he may be unable to father a child. Choose the correct statement to explain this problem. FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes. Which of the following organs is affected by thyroid hormone in adults? Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones.
Which of the following statements is true concerning this difference? It does not require a second messenger to effect a response. Glucocorticoids enable the body to deal appropriately with stress. What ion is sometimes used as a second messenger of amino acid-base hormones?