Dopaminergic and ligand-independent activation of steroid hormone receptors.Ovarian steroid oral steroids and depression, estradiol and progesterone, regulate cellular functions in the central nervous system, resulting in the alterations in physiology and reproductive behavior. One means by which odpaminergic hormones exert their ligand-independemt effects on reproductive behavior is via their intracellular receptors functioning as ligand-dependent transcription factors. Studies from our laboratory in the past few years have shown that dopaminergic and ligand-independent activation of steroid hormone receptors addition to their cognate ligands, neurotransmitters like dopamine can activate intracellular steroid receptors in a ligand-independent manner. Using biochemical and molecular approaches we have demonstrated that the effects of neurotransmitter dopamine, on reproductive behavior in female rats and mice, occur by means of cross talk between membrane receptors for dopamine and intracellular progestin receptors Hkrmone. In this article, our studies on the integration of intracellular signaling pathways leading to the activation of PRs and its impact on modulation of reproductive behavior are vegan bulking shakes.
Dopaminergic and ligand-independent activation of steroid hormone receptors. - PubMed - NCBI
The current view of how steroid hormone receptors affect gene transcription is that these receptors, on binding ligand, change to a state in which they can interact with chromatin and regulate transcription of target genes. Receptor activation is believed to be dependent only on this ligand-binding event.
Selected steroid hormone receptors can be activated in a ligand-independent manner by a membrane receptor agonist, the neurotransmitter dopamine. In vitro, dopamine faithfully mimicked the effect of progesterone by causing a translocation of chicken progesterone receptor cPR from cytoplasm to nucleus. Dual activation by progesterone and dopamine was dissociable, and a serine residue in the cPR was identified that is not necessary for progesterone-dependent activation of cPR, but is essential for dopamine activation of this receptor.
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