Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids, and WaxDescribe the levels of dlfference in multicellular organisms starting with atoms and dianabol pills ebay with organisms. Atoms molecularcellular organellestissues, organs, organ systems, organisms. Define the term homeostasis. Describe, how negative and positive feedback mechanisms are used by organisms to maintain homeostasis. Negative Feedback- response opposite of original deviation returns the variable to a set point.
Lipids: Triglycerides, Phospholipids, Steroids, and Wax Flashcards | Quizlet
Describe the levels of organization in multicellular organisms starting with atoms and ending with organisms.
Atoms molecular , cellular organelles , tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms. Define the term homeostasis. Describe, how negative and positive feedback mechanisms are used by organisms to maintain homeostasis.
Negative Feedback- response opposite of original deviation returns the variable to a set point. Positive Feedback- reinforces original deviation causes rapid and temporary change in a variable. State the basic units of the metric system for length, mass, time and volume. Length- meter m ; Mass- gram g ; Time- second s ; Volume- liter l. Identify the fraction or multiple associated with each of the following prefixes: Combine the prefixes above with a metric unit and know the correct abbreviation of the combined prefix and unit.
Convert quantities between the metric units. Describe why carbon is a versatile element and found in the structure of all bio molecules. Carbon has the ability to form large, complex and diverse molecules. Having 4 outer electrons, it shares electrons with other atoms to form 4 covalent bonds with a variety of bond angles.
Identify the following functional groups and describe their properties: Define the terms monomer also called subunit or building block and polymer. A polymer is a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds. The repeated units are small molecules called monomers.
This reaction is called a condensation reaction or dehydration reaction. In hydrolysis, bonds are broken by the addition of water molecules. Define the terms monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide. Name and classify the following common carbohydrates as either monosaccharides, dissacharides, or polysaccharides: Monosaccharides-Glucose, galactose, ribose, doexyribose Dissacharides-sucrose, lactose, fructose Polysaccharides- glycogen, starch, cellulose.
Describe the function of each of the common carbohydrates listed above. Galactose is sometimes known as a brain sugar, since small quantities of the sugar can provide a large amount of energy. Glycogen- how we store glucose mostly by the liver and muscle cells. Starch- broken down for cellular respiration Lactose- broken down, its subunits are used for energy cellulose- plants to strengthen cell walls, humans cannot digest cellulose it is used as fiber.
Name the parts of an amino acid: Parts of a amino acid- a central carbon acid located the center of an amino acid. An asymmetric carbon atom. Describe how the R group in each of the 20 different amino acids determines each amino acid's characteristics. One group of amino acids has hydrophobic R groups. Another group of amino acids has polar R groups that are hydrophilic.
A third group of amino acids includes those with functional groups that are charged ionized at cellular pH. Some acidic R groups are negative in charge due to the presence of a carboxyl group. Basic R groups have amino groups that are positive in charge.
Note that all amino acids have carboxyl and amino groups. The terms acidic and basic in this context refer only to these groups in the R groups. Describe the four levels of a protein's structure, including at which level of structure covalent bonds are important and at which level of structure hydrogen bonds are important.
Lysozyme, an enzyme that attacks bacteria, consists of amino acids. The precise primary structure of a protein is determined by inherited genetic information. The substitution of one amino acid valine for the normal one glutamic acid at a particular position in the primary structure of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in red blood cells, can cause sickle-cell disease, an inherited blood disorder.
The abnormal hemoglobins crystallize, deforming the red blood cells into a sickle shape and clogging capillaries. The weakly positive hydrogen atom attached to the nitrogen atom has an affinity for the oxygen atom of a nearby peptide bond. Each hydrogen bond is weak, but the sum of many hydrogen bonds stabilizes the structure of part of the protein. The presence of so many hydrogen bonds makes each silk fiber stronger than a steel strand of the same weight.
While these three interactions are relatively weak, strong covalent bonds called disulfide bridges that form between the sulfhydryl groups SH of two cysteine monomers act to rivet parts of the protein together. Collagen is a fibrous protein of three polypeptides that are supercoiled like a rope.
This provides structural strength for collagen's role in connective tissue. Hemoglobin is a globular protein with quaternary structure. It consists of four polypeptide subunits: Both types of subunits consist primarily of alpha-helical secondary structure. Each subunit has a nonpeptide heme component with an iron atom that binds oxygen. Describe the importance of shape to protein function. A proteins shape determines its function-many proteins are globular,while others are fiborous. The folding occurs as the protein is being synthesized within the cell.
Define the term denaturation. Explain how denaturation affects the function of a protein. If proteins in a living cell are denatured, this results in disruption of cell activity and possibly cell death. Denatured proteins can exhibit a wide range of characteristics, from loss of solubility to communal aggregation. Some proteins can return to their functional shape after denaturation, but others cannot, especially in the crowded environment of the cell.
Describe how pH and temperature affect protein function. Alterations in pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other factors can unravel or denature a protein.
List examples of the functions of proteins in cells. Name the two major nucleic acids found in cells. These are the molecules that allow living organisms to reproduce their complex components from generation to generation.
Identify the three main parts of a nucleotide. Identify genes as pieces of DNA with the instructions for making a specific protein. Describe how two DNA strands are complementary to each other. Adenine A always pairs with thymine T and guanine G with cytosine C. The two strands are complementary. Identify lipids as molecules that are hydrophobic or at least partially hydrophobic. A diverse group of hydrophobic molecules the unifying features is that they have little or no attraction for water.
List three types of lipids. Compare the structure of triglycerides, phospholipids. Compare the function of triglycerides, phospholipids and the steroid cholesterol. Structure and Function of Cells. State the three tenets of the cell theory. Many organisms are single-celled. Even in multicellular organisms, the cell is the basic unit of structure and function. Describe the basic structure of eukaryotic cells: Plasma membrane- functions as a selective barrier that allows the passage of oxygen, nutrients , and wastes for the whole cell.
Nucleus- is a enclosed membrane organelle contains the chromosomes of the cell. There are a variety of membrane bound organelles of specialized form and function. Prokaryotic cells store chromosomes here. Describe the location of intracellular and extracellular fluids and the relationship between the two. Exrtracellular fluid- fluid that is not contained in cells.
Describe the structure and function of the cytoskeleton of the cell. You do NOT need to differentiate between microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Cytoskeleton of the cell- is a network of fibers extending throughout the cytoplasm. Describe the structure and function of ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum RER , and the Golgi apparatus also called Golgi body or Golgi complex.
Ribosomes- build cells proteins. Ribosomes, containing rRna and protein, are the organelles that carry out protein synthesis. Describe how ribosomes, the rough endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus work together in protein synthesis and packaging. Describe the structure and function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum SER. Smooth endoplacmic reticulum- is rich in enxymes and plays a role in a variety of metabolic processes.
Describe the structure and function of lysosomes. They recycle the cells organized and renew the cell giving it nutrients and repair cells. Describe the structure of the mitochondrion and its role in energy capture in the cell.