NandroloneNandrolonealso known as nortestosteroneis an androgen and anabolic steroid Stdroid which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate brand name Deca-Durabolin and nandrolone phenylpropionate brand name Durabolin. Side effects of nandrolone esters include symptoms of masculinization like acneincreased hair growth nandrolone anabolic steroid, voice changesand increased sexual desire. Nandrolone esters were first described and introduced for medical use in the nandrolone anabolic steroid s. Nandrolone esters are used clinically, although increasingly rarely, for people in catabolic states with major burns, cancer, and AIDS, and an ophthalmological formulation was available to support cornea healing. The positive effects of nandrolone esters include muscle growth, appetite stimulation sterojd increased red nandrolone anabolic steroid cell production, [ medical citation needed xteroid and bone density.
Nandrolone - Wikipedia
Nandrolone , also known as nortestosterone , is an androgen and anabolic steroid AAS which is used in the form of esters such as nandrolone decanoate brand name Deca-Durabolin and nandrolone phenylpropionate brand name Durabolin. Side effects of nandrolone esters include symptoms of masculinization like acne , increased hair growth , voice changes , and increased sexual desire.
Nandrolone esters were first described and introduced for medical use in the late s. Nandrolone esters are used clinically, although increasingly rarely, for people in catabolic states with major burns, cancer, and AIDS, and an ophthalmological formulation was available to support cornea healing. The positive effects of nandrolone esters include muscle growth, appetite stimulation and increased red blood cell production, [ medical citation needed ] and bone density.
Nandrolone sulfate has been used in an eye drop formulation as an ophthalmic medication. Nandrolone esters are used for physique- and performance-enhancing purposes by competitive athletes , bodybuilders , and powerlifters.
Side effects of nandrolone esters include masculinization among others. Other side effects of high doses of nandrolone can include erectile dysfunction and cardiovascular damage, as well as several ailments resulting from the drug's effect of lowering levels of luteinizing hormone through negative feedback. Unlike testosterone and certain other AAS, nandrolone is not potentiated in androgenic tissues like the scalp , skin , and prostate , hence deleterious effects in these tissues are lessened.
In addition to its AR agonistic activity, unlike many other AAS, nandrolone is also a potent progestogen. Nandrolone has a very high ratio of anabolic to androgenic activity. A variety of esters of nandrolone have been marketed and used medically. Examples of other nandrolone esters that have been marketed and used medically include nandrolone cyclohexylpropionate , nandrolone cypionate , nandrolone hexyloxyphenylpropionate , nandrolone laurate , nandrolone sulfate , and nandrolone undecanoate.
Nandrolone is the parent compound of a large group of AAS. The following is list of derivatives of nandrolone that have been developed as AAS: The elaboration of a method for the reduction of aromatic rings to the corresponding dihydrobenzenes under controlled conditions by A. Birch opened a convenient route to compounds related to the putative norprogesterone. This reaction, now known as the Birch reduction ,  is typified by the treatment of the monomethyl ether of estradiol 1 with a solution of lithium metal in liquid ammonia in the presence of alcohol as a proton source.
Initial reaction constituents of 1,4-dimetalation of the most electron deficient positions of the aromatic ring—in the case of an estrogen, the 1 and 4-positions. Rxn of the intermediate with the proton source leads to a dihydrobenzene; a special virtue of this sequence in steroids is the fact that the double bind at 2 is in effect becomes an enol ether moiety. Treatment of this product 2 with weak acid, oxalic acid for e. Nandrolone use is directly detectable in hair or indirectly detectable in urine by testing for the presence of norandrosterone , a metabolite.
The International Olympic Committee has set a limit of 2. In the largest nandrolone study performed on athletes at the Nagano Olympic Games , no athlete tested over 0. A number of nandrolone cases in athletics occurred in , which included high-profile athletes such as Merlene Ottey , Dieter Baumann and Linford Christie. Mark Richardson , a British Olympic relay runner who tested positive for the substance, gave a significant amount of urine samples in a controlled environment and delivered a positive test for the drug, demonstrating that false positives could occur, which led to an overhaul of his competitive ban.
Heavy consumption of the essential amino acid lysine as indicated in the treatment of cold sores has allegedly shown false positives in some and was cited by American shotputter C. Hunter as the reason for his positive test, though in he admitted to a federal grand jury that he had injected nandrolone. As a result of the numerous overturned verdicts, the testing procedure was reviewed by UK Sport. On October 5, , three-time Olympic gold medalist for track and field Marion Jones admitted to use of the drug, and was sentenced to six months in jail for lying to a federal grand jury in Mass spectrometry is also used to detect small samples of nandrolone in urine samples, as it has a unique molar mass.
Nandrolone was first synthesized in Nandrolone was probably among the first AAS to be used as a doping agent in sports in the s. It has been banned at the Olympics since Nandrolone esters have been studied in several indications. They were intensively studied for osteoporosis , and increased calcium uptake and decreased bone loss, but caused virilization in about half of the women who took them and were mostly abandoned for this use when better drugs like the bisphosphonates became available.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Elks 14 November The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data, Structures and Bibliographies. Hall 6 December Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Thomas 6 December Drugs, Athletes, and Physical Performance.
Principles and Practice of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Larry Jameson; Leslie J. De Groot 25 February Adult and Pediatric E-Book. A Multi-Faceted Doping Agent". In Thieme, Detlef; Hemmersbach, Peter.
In De Groot, Leslie J. Both testosterone and its non-aromatizable derivative nandrolone, produce increased bone density in men with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis with minimal short-term side-effects Retrieved March 2, Acta Endocrinol Suppl Copenh. Mottram 12 November Mini Rev Med Chem. Wayne Meikle 24 April Endocrine Replacement Therapy in Clinical Practice. Estrane and gonane progestogens are derived from nortestosterone, the progestogenic parent compound used in oral contraceptives in the United States.
Estranes are characterized by the presence of an ethinyl group at position 17 and by the absence of a methyl group between the A and B rings see Fig. The estrane progestogens that are related structurally to norethindrone norethynodrel, lynestrenol, norethindrone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate are converted to this parent compound.
The gonanes share the structural modifications found in the estranes and also possess an ethinyl group at position 13 and a keto group at position 3 see Fig. Norgestrel was synthesized in and is a racemic mixture of dextro and levorotatory forms. The levorotatory form, levonorgestrel, provides the biologic activity. Third-generation gonanes desogestrel, gestodene, and norgestimate have been developed to reduce unwanted side effects of progestogens, [ Journal of the American Chemical Society.
Quarterly Reviews, Chemical Society. Patent 2,, to Organon. Archived from the original on Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man 8th ed. Baumann to fight all the way. Mark Richardson explains how he felt at his disciplinary hearing". Archived from the original PDF on Journal of the Chemical Society Resumed: Translational andrology and urology. Androstanolone stanolone, dihydrotestosterone, DHT Androstanolone esters Bolazine capronate Drostanolone propionate dromostanolone propionate Epitiostanol Mepitiostane Mesterolone Metenolone acetate methenolone acetate Metenolone enanthate methenolone enanthate Stenbolone acetate Nortestosterone derivatives: Bolandiol dipropionate Nandrolone esters e.
Danazol Gestrinone Progestins e. D 2 receptor antagonists prolactin releasers e. Androvax androstenedione albumin Ovandrotone albumin Fecundin. Progesterone Quingestrone Retroprogesterone derivatives: Demegestone Promegestone Trimegestone Testosterone derivatives: Danazol Dimethisterone Ethisterone Nortestosterone derivatives: Allylestrenol Altrenogest Dienogest Etynodiol diacetate Lynestrenol Norethisterone norethindrone Norethisterone acetate Norethisterone enanthate Noretynodrel Norgesterone Norgestrienone Normethandrone methylestrenolone Norvinisterone Oxendolone Quingestanol acetate Tibolone ; Gonanes: Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.